NEW REPORT RELEASED: “Renewable Hydrogen Roadmap: Advancing Zero-Emission Transportation and California’s Clean Energy Economy”

“Renewable Hydrogen Roadmap: Advancing Zero-Emission Transportation and California’s Clean Energy Economy”
Energy Independence Now, in collaboration with The Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation and The California Hydrogen Business Council, Releases Roadmap on Critical Strategies to Advance Zero-Emission Transportation and Clean Energy Storage.

May 17, 2018 (Los Angeles) – Today, Energy Independence Now (EIN), in collaboration with the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation and the California Hydrogen Business Council (CHBC), released a roadmap outlining key strategies to promote renewable hydrogen (RH2) production that will help California achieve its clean energy and clean transportation goals.

On the heels of Governor Jerry Brown’s recent call for 5 million zero-emission vehicles by 2030 and 200 hydrogen stations by 2025, EIN’s Renewable Hydrogen Roadmap provides the blueprint to achieve these ambitious efforts in the cleanest possible manner. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) and renewable fuel are vital components of California’s zero-emission future. This Roadmap explores the most cost-effective and scalable production technologies and feedstocks, such as renewable electricity or biogas, to present viable pathways for industry, government and consumers.

“We are proud to support these important findings to help accelerate the development and deployment of clean, renewable transportation fuel and to ensure that hydrogen electric cars are available, affordable, and accessible for every Californian,” said Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation CEO, Terry Tamminen. “This paper, at the intersection of technology and cutting-edge environmental and energy policy, presents innovative solutions that government, industry and consumers all can use, and will help make California a model for the rest of the world to follow.”

“EIN’s Renewable Hydrogen Roadmap lays out policy and action recommendations to help California achieve its ambitious energy, climate and air quality goals by dramatically reducing pollution and GHG emissions from the energy generation and transportation sectors,” said EIN’s Executive Director, Brian Goldstein. “California is globally renowned for its environmental leadership and innovation, embracing clean energy policies that are reducing carbon emissions and pollution while creating new jobs and economic growth opportunities that are the envy of the world. Pioneering the renewable hydrogen marketplace offers a tremendous opportunity for California to continue to lead the way.” California has committed to building 200 hydrogen fueling stations by 2025 and there are already thousands of hydrogen FCEVs on the roads of the Golden State. Zero-emission FCEVs use hydrogen to produce electricity on board, requiring less than 5 minutes to refuel for driving ranges up to 360 miles.
The Renewable Hydrogen Roadmap’s key proposals include:

1. Increasing financial support and market-building mechanisms to catalyze the development of RH2 production at scale.

2. Creating state and federal policies that support the vision of RH2 and the pathways to develop and scale RH2 deployment.

3. Educating policymakers, stakeholders and the public about the benefits of scalable RH2 production, which will accelerate the adoption and deployment of renewable electricity and clean, zero-emission transportation fuels.

“CHBC members see renewable hydrogen as the cornerstone of the zero-emission transportation future in California,” said Jeff Serfass, Executive Director of the California Hydrogen Business Council. “At-scale renewable hydrogen production is critical, not only for FCEVs, but also to support fueling of medium and heavy-duty vehicles like buses and trucks. This roadmap outlines initiatives to meet the demand for those vehicles.”

The transportation sector is by far the largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in California, generating 37% of the state’s GHGs or 163 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2014. California’s climate and clean energy laws already require cutting petroleum use in half and cutting GHG emissions by 40% (from 1990 levels) by 2030. California also has committed to dramatically increase production of renewable electricity by generating 50% of its power from renewable sources by 2030. RH2 can help California achieve both initiatives, providing zero-emission fuel and critical storage opportunities for renewable energy.

EIN continues to work with environmental, energy and transportation experts such as the CHBC and the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation to implement the findings of the roadmap, which was made possible by their generous support as well as by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), Toyota Motor Corporation, Honda Motor Company, Southern California Gas Company, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, The Linde Group, Nel Hydrogen, Hydrogenics Corporation, ITM Power, FuelCell Energy and Proton OnSite.

The roadmap and executive summary can be accessed at

Media Contact:
Ruben Aronin
(310) 612-5663


Energy Independence Now (EIN) is the only environmental nonprofit dedicated to advancing fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and the hydrogen-fueling infrastructure required to catalyze a rapid transition to a clean energy and transportation economy. EIN engages in comprehensive research, strategic policy advocacy and public outreach to promote the widespread adoption of FCEVs and renewable hydrogen as a key part of the zero-emission future of transportation. More information at

The Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation (LDF) is dedicated to the long-term health and wellbeing of all Earth’s inhabitants. LDF supports projects around the world that build climate resiliency, protect vulnerable wildlife, and restore balance to threatened ecosystems and communities.
Through grant-making, public campaigns and media initiatives, LDF brings attention and needed funding to six program areas – Wildlands Conservation, Oceans Conservation, Climate Change, Indigenous Rights, Transforming California and Innovative Solutions. More information at

The California Hydrogen Business Council (CHBC) is comprised of over 100 companies, agencies and individuals involved in the business of hydrogen. Our mission is to advance the commercialization of hydrogen in the energy sector, including transportation, goods movement, and stationary power systems to reduce emissions and dependence on oil. More information at

Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation Awards Grant to Energy Independence Now

In an emotional speech at today's climate change conference at Yale University, Leonardo DiCaprio announced the $20 million in new environmental grants through his Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation (LDF).

EIN is honored to be one of the featured grantees of today’s global announcement.

“This is an exciting day for EIN, and for the entire environmental community. We couldn’t be more proud,” exclaimed EIN’s Executive Director, Brian Goldstein. “The support from the DiCaprio Foundation will help us continue to encourage the adoption and expansion of renewable hydrogen infrastructure and zero-emission hydrogen electric vehicles to help fight climate change and accelerate clean energy.”

The grants have been awarded, in part, to support innovative grass roots efforts aimed at combating climate change and solving complex environmental issues. 

“We are proud to support the work of over 100 organizations at home and abroad”, stated DiCaprio. “These grantees are active on the ground, protecting our oceans, forests and endangered species for future generations – and tackling the urgent, existential challenges of climate change.”

EIN Founder and LDF CEO, Terry Tamminen, remarked, “This round of grants comes at a critical time. With a lack of political leadership, and continued evidence that climate change is growing worse with record-breaking heat waves and storms, we believe we need to do as much as we can now, before it is too late.”

Since 2000, EIN has been a leader in the fight to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and harmful particulate matter from the transportation sector-- by advancing clean hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. Please join the fight!



Mary Nichols Shares the Joys of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Ride

Originally Published in LA Magazine
March 10, 2016

I met up with Mary Nichols, Chairman of the California Air Resources Board, at the same place that she likes to take her 1½ year old grandson every Sunday… a gas station in West Los Angeles.

He loves to watch his grandma fuel up her brand new Toyota Mirai hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and Nichols loves that she doesn’t have to expose her grandson to noxious gasoline odors. During our interview we hovered between the dispenser and the Mirai, gawking at technology that countless engineers have seamlessly integrated to create normaldriving and fueling experiences. It took a couple of minutes before I noticed an unusual traffic jam as a Mercedes F-Cell waited patiently to fuel up behind us. Nichols told me that was the first time that had happened to her, but she’s sure it won’t be the last.

Nichols, one of our state government’s most prominent environmental leaders, has been named as one of Time’s 100 most influential people in the world for being a fierce champion of the cutting-edge technology and environmental regulations that have now been adopted by California, the U.S. and beyond.

As head of Energy Independence Now, the only nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing the FCEV marketplace, I was eager to get Nichols’s impressions of the Mirai and the new hydrogen fueling stations popping up across California. For more than a decade, EIN has been one of California’s leading advocates and architects of the state’s Hydrogen Highway and we’re committed to ensuring that FCEVs play a leading role in California’s zero emission vehicle future. I usually have to travel to Sacramento from my home in L.A. for meetings like this one, but today I was delighted that I only had to travel about 4 miles to meet Nichols at one of the state’s newest hydrogen fueling stations.

—Brian Goldstein

L.A. Driver: What made you want to purchase a fuel cell vehicle?
Nichols: Someone told me I should put my money where my mouth is. This isn’t my first clean vehicle, as I also own a Honda FIT electric vehicle that I love. But it is certainly the most luxurious car I’ve ever owned. I really appreciate the sense of comfort I feel when I drive the car, the impressive safety features and I really love the color — maritime blue. That makes me happy.

What is it like to drive the Mirai?
It’s fun. I’m consistently getting 300 miles or more every time I refuel. There’s a great electronic dashboard that gives me all kinds of information about how I’m driving, including tailored feedback to encourage driving habits that will optimize fuel efficiency. I must say I never really thought of myself as having a lead foot, but when I first started driving the Mirai, I would get an efficiency score of just 19 or 20. But with some basic adjustments to my driving habits, now I regularly get scores of 50 or 60.

What’s it like fueling up the Mirai?
The first time I tried it on my own, I have to admit that I had a little difficulty. Even though I was trained the first time I fueled up, I guess I wasn’t paying full attention, so when I returned on my own, I had to call the toll-free number listed on the dispenser. They can monitor the station in real time and the operator was able to detect that I hadn’t properly sealed the nozzle. They talked me through what I needed to do and a few minutes later, I was all fueled up.

Who trained you to fuel the vehicle and was that part of the purchasing experience? I can’t say enough good things about my salesman Eddie Fuentes (with LAcarGUY’s Toyota of Santa Monica). Toyota is so dedicated to these vehicles and they’re determined to make this a success. They’ve done an amazing job of training their sales staff to understand and promote FCEV technology. Unlike many of my other experiences with car dealers, Eddie continues to follow up with me to make sure that my Mirai experience, which includes free fuel, is positive.

Why would you recommend someone consider buying a fuel cell vehicle?
As you can imagine, I’m a fan of all zero emission vehicles. While many electric vehicles are great for most driving needs — and they’re getting more affordable and better range all the time — sometimes you need a vehicle that has more range. Occasionally I have to travel to El Monte or Riverside and it’s perfect for that. I would caution any prospective drivers that there are only a few local fueling stations open right now, but by the end of the year there will be close to 50 stations operating. I’m thinking about testing out the fueling network by driving my Mirai to Sacramento.

Paris COP21: A Real Turning Point

by EIN Board Member Terry Tamminen (with Kristina Haddad)

As the former Secretary of the California EPA, and in my current role as the President of Seventh Generation Advisors and Advisor to the R20 Regions of Climate Action, I have long been an advocate for the power of action at the state and local level in the fight to curb climate change. California’s leadership set the gold standard and to help inspire other regions to take similar actions for the last several years I have worked alongside the R20, a non-profit launched by former Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and other global leaders to continue work at the regional level and facilitate and deploy low carbon projects worldwide.

It is against this backdrop that I attended the COP21 conference in Paris.  As a representative for subnational action our goals were two fold – 1) To illustrate that subnational action is real and if scaled up could mean significant reductions in emissions at the national level and 2) To inform key policy makers, financial actors, and other stakeholders about the current and future trends taking place in the climate finance efforts, and set forth new strategies and investment vehicles for rapid scale-up and expansion of climate finance. To support these messages we participated in several high-level events and one-on-one meetings and released two reports “Scaling Up: From Local to Global Climate Action” and “Climate Finance: A status Report and Action Plan.”

R20 team presents Climate Finance Action Plan to French Prime Minister Valls

The report “Scaling Up: From Local to Global Climate Action” confirms that sub-national action on climate change is in many ways surpassing national efforts in scope and ambition. The report uses case studies from nine regions around the world to highlight initiatives that, if adopted nationally, would contribute significantly to, or even surpass, country-level mitigation goals. The highlighted initiatives have the potential to raise national ambition; spur additional mitigation, adaptation, and climate financing; and inject an emphasis on solutions-directed efforts into the public dialogue on climate change. From California to Rajasthan, India, the case studies reveal a range of local partnerships that exhibit strong climate leadership.

Climate Finance: A Status Report and Action Plan” provides tangible, concrete examples of how to expedite the transition to a low-carbon economy based on proven technologies and projects all over the world, such as those described in “Scaling Up”. Drafted at the request of French President Francois Hollande, who identified climate finance as critical to the negotiations at COP21, the report offers a comprehensive road map to effectively tackle climate finance challenges. The report gives examples of supportive governments in various regions around the world (at the sub-national and national level); mature low-carbon technologies; and substantial amounts of capital, but also points out that intermediaries are needed to align interests and develop projects. The Report concludes by proposing concrete solutions moving forward and will also serve as the basis for implementation of climate finance solutions post COP21.

These reports and the messages that we were able to deliver at COP21 were embraced and significantly elevated.  Governor Schwarzenegger participated in a number of COP21 events to draw attention to these two papers and continue his longstanding commitment in addressing climate change and protecting the environment. Schwarzenegger highlighted the important role that sub-national leadership is providing in reducing carbon emissions and stressed the need to accelerate the action being created at the local level.

R20 Chairman Arnold Schwarzenegger With Chinese negotiator Xie Zhenhua

Schwarzenegger gave a keynote speech to the Inter-Parliamentary Union where he formally announced the reports and presented copies to French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius and UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon. Minister Fabius fully agreed that public policies and funds could unleash much larger private funding from a wide variety of finance institutions and private investors. Schwarzenegger also spoke to the students and faculty of Sciences Po University about the long-term nature of the climate change challenge and the important role future generations of leaders will play in addressing it.

Finally – and most critical – Schwarzenegger delivered remarks to the official UN negotiating body that was working formally integrate subnational actions into the UNFCCC negotiations for the first time in history. He highlighted how much progress sub-nationals have made to support the reasoning for this new officially sanctioned approach.

We now see that the outcome of COP21 is profound. For the first time in history almost 200 countries agreed on a goal to keep global temperature increase “well below” 2C (3.6F) and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5C. There is still much to be worked out and now the real work begins. But this consensus is truly a game-changer for our efforts to lower GHG emissions and expedite the transition to a clean, green economy.

(Kristina Haddad is the Senior Program Associate of Seventh Generation Advisors and a co-author of the two reports cited above.)

When it Comes to Fuel Cell Cars, the Future is Already Here

The L.A. Auto Show always features some of the greenest cars on the road. This year is no exception, although there are several new zero emission vehicles being showcased that might surprise green car aficionados.

A lot of people still think zero emission vehicles with long range and quick refueling times are years away from reality, but this year there are two new fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) that aren’t just being featured at the Auto Show—they’re already in select showrooms.

Toyota and Hyundai are betting big on fuel cell electric vehicles that offer high performance, greater cargo capacity, longer range and fast refueling times. They’ve recently launched a sedan (Toyota Mirai) and compact SUV (Hyundai Tucson). Meanwhile, Honda just announced they will be offering their new Clarity sedan late next year (you can check it out at the L.A. Auto show where it is making its North American debut as well).

Many people don’t realize that FCEVs operate on the same electric motors that traditional battery and plug-in electric vehicles like the Nissan Leaf or Chevy Volt use. Instead of relying on batteries, FCEVs utilize hydrogen fuel cells to generate electricity from the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to power the electric motor. As a result, only water vapor comes out of the exhaust.

You can read my full blogpost on LA Magazine here.

EIN’s Brian Goldstein featured panelist at Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Summit

Originally published September 24th, 2015

EIN Executive Director Brian Goldstein was recently a featured speaker presenting a “Spotlight on Renewable Hydrogen” at the California Hydrogen Business Council Fuel Cell Summit. This session provided a progress update from the CHBC Summer Summit Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, including a briefing of government officials on the major findings.

  Brian and Jeff Serfas (Managing Dir, CA Hydrogen Bus Council)

Brian and Jeff Serfas (Managing Dir, CA Hydrogen Bus Council)

The Summit also featured national and international hydrogen and fuel cell energy industry experts and policy makers who created a forum for the exchange of information about both stationary and mobile fuel cells. The purpose of the summit was to help participants recognize the already important commercial markets for these technologies and new products and technologies about to enter the commercial marketplace. Featured topics for this year’s Summitincluded:

  • Renewable Hydrogen

  • Transportation

  • Regional Environmental Goals

  • Sustainable Goods Movement and Freight

  • Stationary, Backup, and Telecom Applications

  • Energy Storage and Power-to-Gas

  • The Perceptions of Hydrogen

The Summit attracted over 200 participants from agencies, businesses, universities, and non-profit organizations. To learn more, go to

EIN Appoints New Executive Director

Originally published July 31st, 2014

Energy Independence Now (EIN) is pleased to announce that Brian Goldstein has been appointed as its new Executive Director.   Brian replaces Tyson Eckerle, who was appointed as the Governor’s ZEV Infrastructure Project Manager in California’s GoBiz office earlier this year.

Brian’s finance background and experience developing alternative fuel infrastructure are a perfect fit for EIN and its support for investment in clean vehicles.

“We are delighted to have Brian join EIN”, says Daniel Emmett, Chairman and Founder of Energy Independence Now.  “He will be leading EIN during a pivotal period for clean transportation, as the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles that we have long advocated for are poised to hit the market.”

Brian will continue to work with EIN’s team to support clean vehicle deployment in California, from a policy, industry, and community readiness perspective. “I am thrilled to be joining EIN, and looking forward to working with our dedicated partners to continue to promote the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies. ” say Brian. “EIN is poised to provide critical support to ensure a successful roll out of the next generation of hydrogen transportation technology in California.”

Energy Independence Now (EIN) is pleased to announce that Brian Goldstein has been appointed as its new Executive Director.   Brian replaces Tyson Eckerle, who was appointed as the Governor’s ZEV Infrastructure Project Manager in California’s GoBiz office earlier this year.
Brian’s finance background and experience developing alternative fuel infrastructure are a perfect fit for EIN and its support for investment in clean vehicles.

“We are delighted to have Brian join EIN”, says Daniel Emmett, Chairman and Founder of Energy Independence Now.  “He will be leading EIN during a pivotal period for clean transportation, as the hydrogen fuel cell vehicles that we have long advocated for are poised to hit the market.”

Brian will continue to work with EIN’s team to support clean vehicle deployment in California, from a policy, industry, and community readiness perspective. “I am thrilled to be joining EIN, and looking forward to working with our dedicated partners to continue to promote the adoption of alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies. ” say Brian. “EIN is poised to provide critical support to ensure a successful roll out of the next generation of hydrogen transportation technology in California.”

Taking EIN to the Governor's Office

On January 27, 2014  Energy Independence Now’s Executive Director, Tyson Eckerle, was appointed by Governor Brown to serve as the first ever Zero Emissions Vehicle Infrastructure Project Manager in the Governor’s Office of Economic and Business Development (GoBiz). In this role, Tyson will work to ensure the successful roll-out of the infrastructure needed to support hydrogen fuel cell and plug-in electric vehicles.

Tyson’s appointment is a direct reflection of the critical work he helped orchestrate at Energy Independence Now (EIN) with EIN’s Policy Director, Remy Garderet, and a visionary board and funders. Tyson will carry EIN’s insight and deep contact base directly to the Governor’s Office.

“We are delighted for Tyson and also see this as a tremendous reflection on EIN’s great work,” said Board President and co-founder Daniel Emmett. “EIN has advocated for strong state zero emission vehicle leadership for many years. Through the creation of this position and Tyson’s appointment, California will be able to make even greater progress towards clean air, energy security and reduced carbon emissions.”

Moving forward, Remy Garderet will step into the role of interim director as he and the EIN Board continue to advance EIN’s program and inform policy and business decisions.  EIN is looking forward to working with our funders and supporters to maintain focus on core priorities as we begin this next chapter.

AB8: It Began With an Idea

Originally published October 7th, 2013

As advocates for clean transportation, we float ideas constantly.  Some don’t go very far; some result in approximately $2 billion of funding for alternative fuels and vehicles and air quality improvement programs. To be fair, only one idea of ours has resulted in the latter.

On September 28, 2013, Governor Brown signed AB 8 (Perea), which extends critical alternative fuel and vehicle investments and diesel emission reduction programs through 2024. This tremendous victory for the State’s long-term environmental and economic health would not have happened without the planting and execution of one key idea: using the Clean Fuels Outlet (CFO) regulation to mandate the installation of hydrogen fueling stations.

Why was the CFO so important?

The CFO, originally created by the Air Resources Board in 1990 to provide methanol, ethanol, and CNG fueling outlets, was adapted and adopted in 2012 to ensure hydrogen station development kept pace with hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) sales projections. The concept of the regulation was simple; if you sell gasoline or diesel in California, you need to provide a proportionally fair amount of clean fuels to meet projected demand. Adapting the CFO for hydrogen was an idea pitched and championed through the process by EIN.

For obvious reasons, oil companies were not fans of the CFO regulation and its 2012 changes. However, rather than pursuing a protracted legal battle likely damaging (or at least resource intensive) to both sides, the ARB and Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA is the trade association that represents the bulk of companies involved in petroleum business) struck a grand bargain: the ARB would put the CFO on the shelf if WSPA and its members could help pass legislation to fund hydrogen fueling stations.

AB8 was crafted in this vein; it effectively eliminates the CFO and supports public investment in hydrogen. However, hydrogen is only part of the story. The bill authorizes substantial investments in all alternative fuels and vehicles (hydrogen, electricity, biofuels, CNG, propane, etc.) and also extends the Carl Moyer Diesel Emissions Reduction and Air Quality Improvement Programs.

WSPA support was critical to the effort.  In California, any bill that raises fees or taxes must achieve a 2/3-majority vote in both the Assembly and Senate to make it to the Governor’s desk. AB8 would not have passed without WSPA’s political clout. In short, the CFO turned WSPA into powerful alternative fuel and vehicle advocates.

As with any action of this magnitude, it takes a village to bring a long-term vision to fruition. A tremendous amount of credit rests on the shoulders of the ARB and legislative leaders, as well as the broad coalition of organizations that worked to generate support for AB 8.  AB 8 would not have happened without them.  But it also would not have happened without the CFO Regulation, which turned out to be a good idea made even better.

Promising Technology: Creating Renewable Hydrogen

Originally published July 8th, 2013

As alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) continue to become more economically viable, fuel source and renewability remains a key point of discussion. Although AFVs like fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) can eliminate fossil fuel dependence while reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, many interested parties take a life-cycle approach by questioning the source of the energy used. If the energy carried in a fuel cell doesn’t come from a clean or renewable source, then the vehicle powered by that fuel cell isn’t exactly clean or renewable.

For FCEVs, cost remains the primary challenge to produce 100 percent renewable hydrogen.

The commercial hydrogen market is currently around $100 billion. According to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center, 9 million tons of hydrogen is produced annually in the United States, 95% of which is produced through natural gas reformation. Natural gas reforming is currently the cheapest, most common and efficient method for producing hydrogen. When used in a FCEV, natural gas derived hydrogen reduces greenhouse gas emissions approximately 50%, when compared to conventional gasoline. However, to reach long-term climate goals, we need close to 100% reduction.

A potential solution to the challenges of production costs and environmental impact lies in the research conducted by Y.H. Percival Zhang at Virginia Tech’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.  Zhang and his team successfully developed a process to produce large quantities of hydrogen from the simple plant sugar xylose, an abundant renewable resource. The innovative technology avoids using expensive metals and releases close to zero greenhouse gases. This could shorten the timeline for making renewable hydrogen commercially available, which would have huge environmental and economic impacts.

When applied at commercial scale, Zhang’s research has the potential to deliver affordable, renewable, emissions-free hydrogen., It does so simply and efficiently, eliminating costs at each step of the process.  Researchers isolate the necessary enzymes and catalytic reactions required to produce the highest yields of hydrogen from sugar and water. This specific enzyme cocktail works in toxic environments, which removes an expensive detoxification step, and can be produced by one bacterium. By using recyclable enzyme-based solvents, Zhang found lower cost replacements for the traditional high-heat, high-pressure process. Using biomass to generate hydrogen drastically reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, the process allow for energy efficiency above 100% – meaning that the energy of hydrogen produced is greater than the combined input energies of xylose and polyphosphate.

This efficient, environmentally friendly method of hydrogen production is just one example of many potential pathways for creating renewable hydrogen. With the science in place, the right economics can lead this, and other, renewable hydrogen production methods to commercial viability and success. Such as outcome would be a victory for everyone: a clean, domestic, renewable, and affordable fuel to power our mobility.